Category Archives: Group 9

Group 9 Data (Spectroscopic and Light Sensor)

We gathered samples of multiple liquids, including mixtures of a few of them, and analyzed them using two separate instruments; a light sensor, and a portable spectrometer.

To begin with, we shined light through our samples and measured their opacities using the light sensor.  We took the data in a dark room, holding the samples against the light sensor and exposing it to only one source of light at a constant distance and intensity.  We used a cell phone flashlight.  This is a picture of our experimental setup.

setup 1

The light sensor we used had a slight systematic error of about 2.4 lux, that is, it measured 2.4 lux when completely covered.  We have adjusted for that in the table below.

Liquid Adjusted Opacity Values (Lux)
Water 67
Orange Juice 3.6
Extra Virgin Olive Oil 50
Listerine 63.6
Axe Shower Gel 1.3
Hand Sanitizer 66.8
Sprite 69
Coffee 0.4
Coffee plus Unknown Pineapple Juice 8.9
Shower Gel plus Listerine 19.6
Fireball Cinnamon Whiskey 59
Everclear Grain Alcohol 68.6
Orange Juice plus Oil 5.3
Low Fat Soy Milk 1.1
Whiskey plus Low Fat Soy Milk 3.6
Water plus Low Fat Soy Milk 3.4

Our second set of data was attained by analyzing our samples through a portable spectrometer.  It also had a small systematic error, which we have accounted for.  The absorption readings were displaced on the y-axis by about 0.5, giving negative absorption readings.  In our graphs, we have displayed the y-axis from -0.5 to 3, which should be read as 0-3.  3 is the maximum opacity that this spectrometer can measure.  The y-axis records absorbance, while the x-axis displays wavelength.  The picture below is of our setup, showing the spectrometer and all the liquid samples we used.

setup 2

The spectrometer shines light through the samples, and records the absorbance on the wavelengths of the visible spectrum.  Below are our graphs of the data.

axe shower gel graph Axe Shower Gel

coffee and unknown pineapple juice graph  Coffee and Unknown Pineapple Juice

coffee graph  Coffee

everclear grain alcohol graph  Everclear Grain Alcohol

extra virgin olive oil graph Extra Virgin Olive Oil

fireball cinnamon whiskey  Fireball Cinnamon Whiskey

fireball whiskey and soy milk graph Fireball Whiskey and Soy Milk

hand sanitizer graph Hand Sanitizer

listerine and axe shower gel Listerine and Axe Shower Gel

listerine graph Listerine

low fat soy milk graph Low Fat Soy Milk

orange juice  Orange Juice

orange juice and oil graph Orange Juice and Oil

soy milk and water graph Soy Milk and Water

sprite Sprite

watergraph Water


Group 9 Project Plan: The Role of Contaminants in the Opacity of Liquids

     Our project involves the analysis of different liquids spectroscopically. We will also measure the opacity of the same liquids. We want to analyze which contaminants have a stronger impact on opacity. Can we tell the difference between liquids contaminated with different substances based on their opacity? The data obtained using a spectroscope will allow us to determine the compositions of different liquids. We would like to examine any correlations between the spectroscopic data and the opacity measurements we take for the same liquids.
     The equipment we hope to have access to is a spectrometer and any kind of light sensor such as the sensor drone. Spectroscopy works by analyzing the wavelengths of light that are either emitted or absorbed by a substance. Because each element possesses a unique pattern of wavelengths, we can determine the composition of different substances.
      We will be collecting any and all kinds of liquids that we have access to (coffee, juices, alcohol, sodas, etc.). We will certainly use different kinds of water (tap, mineral, distilled, sparkling, etc.) and also water that we contaminate with various substances (salt, fertilizer, spices, chemicals, etc.). In terms of supplies, we will need multiple containers to hold the liquids. The experiment will be done using only one transparent jar which will house the liquids so as to keep the effects of the jar constant. The sides of the jar will be covered in a way that no light escapes and we will create a setup allowing us to place the light sensor under the jar. A constant source of light such as one flashlight will shine at the top of the setup. The light sensor placed under the jar will be housed in a small cardboard box having a hole in it. This will ensure that no other light interferes with the sensor’s measurements.
     As far as roles are concerned, all 3 of us will collect as many different containers, liquids and contaminants as we have access to and we will all be present for the data collection. This is the most efficient way to go about our project because all our data can be collected in one place. We are meeting every Friday at 11 am to discuss the project and carry out any necessary research, data collection or other activities. We will set additional meeting times when necessary. We will also be doing every write-up (such as this one) together.
     All in all, we expect some correlation between contaminants and opacity. However, we are unsure of what to expect without analyzing the data.

Group 9 Project Abstract

We wish to measure the amount of light that passes through various liquids in different states. For example water, orange juice, whiskey etc in their usual liquid states or when they are frozen (if we can freeze them). We intend to examine the differences in opacity among liquids, perhaps using water as a baseline. We would need a Sensor Drone or any other instrument that can measure luminosity.