War leaves scars; not only to humans, but to the physical landscape as well. Weapons, bullets, bodies, and destroyed buildings are just some of the remains that signify war. These remains are noticeable many years after their deposition, allowing archaeologists to study warfare of past civilizations. Such warfare archaeology “can provide a… context for… the inevitability of war and its role in modern civilization” [4, pg. 60]. Hamoukar is one such archaeological site that cannot only tell us a great deal about past warfare but can also teach important lessons for today.Hamoukar in northeastern Syria provides evidence for one of the earliest major battles in history, dating to 3,500 B.C. Archaeologists uncovered destroyed walls and buildings with approximately 1,200 sling missiles strewn throughout the site. Furthermore, Uruk pottery was found that arrived shortly after the war meaning that the Uruk civilization was likely the conqueror. This shows that Hamoukar actually developed independently of the Uruk, shining light on a new theory about the beginnings of civilization.  Warfare archaeology in Hamoukar not only reveals direct information, such as who fought the battle and what remains of it, but can also detail the effects of warfare on culture and landscape. At approximately the same time of the military battles in 3,500 B.C., Hamoukar civilization already started to urbanize from high agricultural production. Archaeological evidence shows remains of canals and dams used to irrigate fields. Once war struck these areas, such technologies were not lost but continued to grow. By 2,500 B.C. this area reached a level of urbanism “never again achieved in this area” [3, pg. 67]. Archaeology can unlock these techniques for efficient agricultural production in harsh conditions and provide a means for people today to make better use of land possibly leading to less crowded cities and a richer population. 
These uses of archaeology can also be applied to warfare today. The current Syrian conflict gives archaeologists a new way to look at Hamoukar. Ironically, archaeologists are currently unable to excavate the warfare aspect of Hamoukar due to today’s Syrian conflict. Unanswered questions that can help today’s conflict include how warfare in Hamoukar affected the Syrian landscape. How did the Hamoukar war affect agriculture? How did that conflict change people’s professions and how did it change people’s relationships with the land? Warfare archaeology uniquely studies an aspect of culture that has occurred for thousands of years. In both settings, two groups of people fought, buildings were destroyed, and remains of struggle were left behind. The only difference between these wars is a 5,500 year gap; people then and now still live on the same land and the archaeology of warfare can look at past people’s struggles to provide solutions to living harmoniously today.
 Reichel, Clemens D. Figure 1. Digital image. Annual Reports 2005-2006. The Hamoukar Expedition, 2006. Web. 24 Nov. 2013. <http://oi.uchicago.edu/pdf/05- 06_Hamoukar.pdf>.
 Reichel, Clemens D. Figure 17. Digital image. Annual Reports 2005-2006. The Hamoukar Expedition, 2006. Web. 24 Nov. 2013. <http://oi.uchicago.edu/pdf/05- 06_Hamoukar.pdf>.
 Reichel, Clemens D. “Hamoukar.” Annual Reports 2005-2006. The Hamoukar Expedition, 2006. Web. 24 Nov. 2013. <http://oi.uchicago.edu/pdf/05- 06_Hamoukar.pdf>.
 Sabloff, Jeremy A. Archaeology Matters: Action Archaeology in the Modern World. Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast, 2008. Print.
 Wilford, John Noble. “Archaeologists Unearth a War Zone 5,500 Years Old.” The New York Times. The New York Times, 16 Dec. 2005. Web. 24 Nov. 2013. <http://www.nytimes.com/2005/12/16/international/middleeast/16battle.html?_r=2>.