A Closer Look at the Archaeological Importance of the Vanguard 1

The Vanguard 1 satellite, launched by the United States in 1958, holds unique archaeological significance as the oldest human-made satellite still orbiting Earth. Though it was only the fourth artificial satellite successfully placed in orbit, Vanguard 1 set several space-age records, some of which stand over 60 years later (Dunbar, 2018). With no way to propel or navigate itself, Vanguard 1 serves as a virtual time capsule, recording six decades of human technological progress.

1.1 An image of the vanguard 1, which lost communication with NASA in 1964 https://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/spacecraft/display.action?id=1958-002B

In the context of the Space Race between the United States and Soviet Union, Vanguard 1 epitomized both national prestige and scientific experimentation. Weighing just 1.47 kg, the rudimentary satellite used two radio transmitters to study the shape of Earth and test the effects of space weather and orbital environment on satellite components (NASA, n.d.). After more than 240 million miles traveled, Vanguard 1 remains in excellent condition and likely will survive for at least another two centuries in orbit (Amos, 2018).

While vastly more sophisticated satellites launched in subsequent decades have since gone defunct, Vanguard 1 continues transmitting a faint signal that tells archaeologists about early space-faring methods and priorities. According to Alice Gorman (2013), space archaeologist at Flinders University in Australia, relic satellites like Vanguard 1 are primary sources for studying the technology and politics of the past. The ability of basic satellites to endure in orbit for far longer than intended offers insight into original engineering constraints and the unexpected durability of the earliest space hardware.

Much as ancient ruins on Earth offer a glimpse into old civilizations, Vanguard 1 and a handful other early satellites serve as time capsules from the dawn of the Space Age. Their longevity in the harsh environment of space is a testament to pioneering space science as well as a baseline record of sixty years of anthropogenic change. If orbital satellites are a defining feature of modern civilization, then Vanguard 1 represents the beginnings of that capability – the foundations of an archaeological record of humanity’s expansion into outer space.

Another relic of the Space Race is the Titan Missile Museum in Arizona which is a deactivated launch site built in 1963 https://www.smithsonianmag.com/arts-culture/titan-missile-museum-160595018/

Suggested readings



Joseph Howard


Amos, J. (2018). Early satellites reveal artefacts of Cold War. BBC News. Retrieved from https://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-43558254

Dunbar, B. (2018). 60 Years: The First Satellite, the Race to Space. NASA. Retrieved from https://www.nasa.gov/feature/60-years-ago-the-first-satellite-launches-the-space-age

Gorman, A. (2013). The Archaeology of Orbital Space. In P. J. Capelotti (Ed.), Archaeologies of the Future: The Desire Called Utopia and Other Science Fictions. Syracuse University Press.

The Crucial Role of Teeth in the Understanding of Ancient People and Bioarcheology

The field of Bioarcheology involves the study of skeletal remains of humans, specifically those found at archaeological sites. The study of these remains gives unparalleled insight into the many facets of ancient civilization, especially in relation to diet and environment. One of the most important subfields of Bioarcheology is dental anthropology (Hillson 2014). The study of one’s teeth is among the best ways of extracting information regarding both the individual who the tooth belongs to, as well as that individual’s environment and culture.  

Due to tooth enamel being the hardest tissue in the body, being 96% dense inorganic hydroxyapatite, it tends to preserve very well regardless of environmental factors (ADA 2022). In fact, a 1.8-million-year-old human tooth was found in 2022 in the nation of Georgia (Reed 2022).  

1.8 million year old tooth found in Georgia

Through a multitude of tests that can be run on the tooth, like carbon dating, archaeologists can put together a somewhat detailed picture of what that individual’s life was like. From lab tests using carbon and nitrogen isotopes in the enamel, scientists can understand and reconstruct diet and where food sources were originally from (Mayne 2015). This could be pivotal in establishing whether one was a part of a nomadic hunter gathering society or if they relied on agriculture for sustenance. Other testing can even give insight into the last 20 years of that individual’s life, which can be pivotal in tracking the progression of a person’s life. This is something that is otherwise incredibly difficult to learn from any other finds at a site (Mayne 2015). Scientists can also extract the exact age of the individual when they died using isotopic dating (Mayne 2015).  

The enamel is the outer most layer of the tooth and where isotopes are extracted from.

Other than using chemical testing, information can also be extracted purely through observation of the tooth. People of Hunter Gatherer societies typically had overbites, causing a specific grinding of the tooth to become common (ADA 2022). People of agriculture-based societies typically show increased pitting, small holes on the front of the tooth, due to the more common reliance on wheat and other carbs (ADA 2022). This also will lead to the increased development of cavities (ADA 2022). 

Without the analyzation of teeth, scientists’ understanding of ancient people would be far more limited. They provide unparalleled insight into the past, giving data that not only leads to explanations of the person who the tooth belonged to, but also of that person’s environment and culture.  

-Joseph Howard

Extra reading : 




AAFS. “Teeth within Anthropology.” All Things AAFS. 2015. https://allthingsaafs.com/tag/teeth-within-anthropology/

Hillson, Simon. Tooth Development in Human Evolution and Bioarchaeology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511894916h

How Stuff Works. Bioarcheology. 2015. https://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/earth/archaeology/bioarchaeology.html

Reed, Besty. “1.8m-year-old tooth of early human found on dig in Georgia.” The Guardian, September 9, 2022. https://www.theguardian.com/science/2022/sep/09/1-point-8-million-year-old-tooth-of-early-human-found-on-dig-in-georgia.

“Picture of the Teeth.” Sherwood Park Dental, No Date. https://sherwoodparkdental.ca/picture-of-the-teeth/.