Sources Cited

General Works           India           China           Japan           Nepal           Tibet           Websites         Links


A. General Works (more than one culture):

Behrendt, Kurt. Tibet and India: Buddhist Traditions and Transformations. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2014.

Buswell, Robert E., Jr., and Donald S. Lopez, Jr., eds. The Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2014.

Foard, James, Michael Solomon, and Richard K. Payne, eds. The Pure Land Tradition: History and Development. Berkeley, Calif.: Berkeley Buddhist Studies Series, 1996.

Guy, John. Lost Kingdoms: Hindu-Buddhist Sculpture of Early Southeast Asia. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2014.

Huntington, John C., and Dina Bangdel. The Circle of Bliss: Buddhist Meditational Art. Columbus, Ohio: Columbus Museum of Art; Chicago: Serindia Publications, 2003.

Kamata, Mayumi, and Miranda E. Shaw. “A New Identity: The Vow of a Being Destined for Enlightenment,” in Huntington and Bangdel, Circle of Bliss, 176–77.

Leidy, Denise Patry. The Art of Buddhism: An Introduction to Its History and Meaning. Boston: Shambhala, 2008.

Leidy, Denise Patry, and Robert A. F. Thurman. Mandala: The Architecture of Enlightenment. New York: Asia Society Galleries; Boston: Shambhala, 1997.

Orzech, Charles D., Richard K. Payne, and Henrik H. Sorensen, eds. Esoteric Buddhism and the Tantras in East Asia. Boston: Brill, 2011.

Pal, Pratapaditya. Himalayas: An Aesthetic Adventure. Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago, 2003.

Proser, Adriana, ed. Pilgrimage and Buddhist Art. New York: Asia Society Museum, 2010.

Raguin, Virginia C., and Dina Bangdel, eds. Pilgrimage and Faith: Buddhism, Christianity, and Islam. Chicago: Serindia Publications, 2010.

Seckel, Dietrich. Buddhist Art of East Asia. Translated by Ulrich Mammitzsch. Bellingham, Wash.: Western Washington University, 1989.

Snellgrove, David. Indo-Tibetan Buddhism: Indian Buddhists and Their Tibetan Successors. Bangkok: Orchid Press, 2004.

Washizuka Hiromitsu, Park Youngbok, and Kang Woo-bang, eds. Transmitting the Forms of Divinity: Early Buddhist Art from Korea and Japan. New York: Japan Society, 2003.


B. India

Bhattacharyya, Benoytosh. The Indian Buddhist Iconography. Calcutta: Firma K. L. Mukhopadhyay, 1968.

Cleary, Thomas, trans. The Flower Ornament Scripture: A Translation of the Avatamsaka Sutra. Boston: Shambhala, 1993.

Davidson, Ronald M. Indian Esoteric Buddhism: A Social History of the Tantric Movement. New York: Columbia University Press, 2002.

Gomez, Luis O. The Land of Bliss: The Paradise of the Buddha of Measureless Light. Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press, 1996.

Harrison, Paul. “Searching for the Origins of the Mahāyāna.” The Eastern Buddhist 28 (1995): 48–69.

Huntington, Susan L., and John C. Huntington. Leaves from the Bodhi Tree: The Art of Pala India (8th–12th Centuries) and Its International Legacy. Dayton: Dayton Art Institute; Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1990.

Huntington, Susan L., with contributions by John C. Huntington. The Art of Ancient India: Buddhist, Hindu, Jain. Boston: Weatherhill, 2001.

Leoshko, Janice. Bodhgaya: The Site of Enlightenment. Bombay: Marg Publications, 1988.

Mallmann, Marie-Thérèse de. Introduction à l’Étude d’Avalokiteśvara. Paris: Civilisations du Sud, 1948.

Schopen, Gregory. Figments and Fragments of Mahāyāna Buddhism in India. Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press, 2005.

Srinivasan, Doris Meth. Many Heads, Arms and Eyes: Origin, Meaning and Form of Multiplicity in Indian Art. New York: Brill, 1997.

Studholme, Alexander. The Origins of Om Manipadme Hūm: A Study of the Kārandavyūha Sūtra. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2002.

Watson, Burton, trans. The Lotus Sutra. New York: Columbia University Press, 1993.

Wingfield, Christopher. “Touching the Buddha: Encounters with a Charismatic Object.” In Museum Materialities: Objects, Engagements, Interpretations, edited by Sandra H. Dudley. 53–70. New York: Routledge, 2010.

C. China

Chen, Kenneth. Buddhism in China: A Historical Survey. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1964.

Emerson, Julie, Jennifer Chen, and Mimi Gardner Gates. Porcelain Stories: From China to Europe. Seattle: Seattle Art Museum, 2000.

Fan Jinshi. The Caves of Dunhuang. Hong Kong: Dunhuang Academy, 2010.

Fan Jinshi, and Willow Weilan Hai, eds. Dunhuang: Buddhist Art at the Gateway of the Silk Road. New York: Dunhuang Academy and China Institute Gallery, 2013.

Fong, Wen C. Beyond Representation: Chinese Painting and Calligraphy, 8th–14th Century. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1992.

Juliano, Annette L. Buddhist Sculpture From China: Selections from the Xi’an Beilin Museum, Fifth through Ninth Centuries. New York: China Institute Gallery, 2007.

Karetzky, Patricia Eichenbaum. Guanyin. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.

Lee, Yu-Min. Visions of Compassion: Images of Kuan-yin in Chinese Art. Taipei: National Palace Museum, 2000.

Leidy, Denise Patry, and Donna Strahan. Wisdom Embodied: Chinese Buddhist and Daoist Sculpture in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2010.

Lopez, Donald S., Jr., ed. Religions of China in Practice. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1996.

Murase, Miyeko. “Kuan-Yin as Savior of Men: Illustration of the Twenty-Fifth Chapter of the Lotus Sūtra in Chinese Painting.” Artibus Asiae 33 (1971): 39–74.

Naquin, Susan, and Chun-Fang Yu, eds. Pilgrims and Sacred Sites in China. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992.

Tythacott, Louise. The Lives of Chinese Objects: Buddhism, Imperialism and Display. New York: Berghahn Books, 2010.

Yifa, Venerable, and P. M. Romaskiewicz, trans. Amitabha Sutra: Translated from the Chinese Version of Kumarajiva. Rosemead, Calif.: Buddha’s Light Publishing and Center for Sutra Translation and Research at University of the West, 2007.

Yu, Chun-Fang. Kuan-yin: The Chinese Transformation of Avalokiteśvara. New York: Columbia University Press, 2001.

Yu, Chun-fang. “P’u-t’o Shan: Pilgrimage and the Creation of the Chinese Potalaka,” in Naquin and Yu, Pilgrims and Sacred Sites in China, 190–245.

Weinstein, Stanley. Buddhism under the T’ang. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1987.

Wong, Dorothy C. “Guanyin Images in Medieval China, 5th–8th Centuries.” In Bodhisattva Avalokiteśvara (Guanyin) and Modern Society: Proceedings of the Fifth Chung-Hwa International Conference on Buddhism, edited by William Magee and Yi-hsun Huang. 255–302. Taipei: Dharma Drum Publishing, 2007.

Zurcher, Erik. “Perspectives in the Study of Chinese Buddhism.” Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society 2 (1982): 161–76.

D. Japan

Brinker, Helmut, and Hiroshi Kanazawa. Zen: Masters of Meditation in Images and Writings. Translated by Andreas Leisinger. Zurich: Artibus Asiae, 1996.

Cunningham, Michael R. Buddhist Treasures from Nara. Cleveland: Cleveland Museum of Art, 1998.

Epprecht, Katharina, ed. Kannon: Divine Compassion, Early Buddhist Art from Japan. Zurich: Museum Rietberg, 2007.

Ford, Barbara Brennan, and Oliver R. Impey. Japanese Art from the Gerry Collection in The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1990.

Fowler, Sherry. “Nyoirin Kannon: Stylistic Evolution of Sculptural Images.” Orientations 20 (1989): 58–65.

Fowler, Sherry. “Travels of the Daihōonji Six Kannon Sculptures.” Ars Orientalis 36 (2009): 178–214.

Levine, Gregory, and Yukio Lippit. Awakenings: Zen Figure Painting in Medieval Japan. New York: Japan Society, 2007.

MacWilliams, Mark. “Living Icons: Reizō Myths of the Saikoku Pilgrimage.” Monumenta Nipponica 59 (Spring 2004): 35–82.

Moerman, D. Max. Localizing Paradise: Kumano Pilgrimage and the Religious Landscape of Premodern Japan. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2005.

Morse, Anne Nishimura, and Samuel Crowell Morse, eds. Object as Insight: Japanese Buddhist Art & Ritual. Katonah, N.Y.: Katonah Museum of Art, 1995.

Okazaki, Joji. Pure Land Buddhist Painting. Translated by Elizabeth ten Grotenhuis. New York: Kodansha International, 1977.

Reader, Ian, and Paul L. Swanson. “Editors’ Introduction: Pilgrimage in the Japanese Religious Tradition.” Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 24 (Fall 1997): 225–70.

Rosenfield, John M. “Standing Images of Shō Kannon,” in Starkman, et al., Unrivaled Splendor, 42–43.

Sharf, Robert H., and Elizabeth Horton Sharf, eds. Living Images: Japanese Buddhist Icons in Context. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 2001.

Shimizu, Yoshiaki. “Zen Art?” In Zen in China, Japan, East Asian Art, edited by H. Brinker, R. P. Kramers, and C. Ouwehand. 73–98. New York: Peter Lang, 1982.

Shimizu, Yoshiaki, and Carolyn Wheelwright, eds. Japanese Ink Paintings From American Collections: The Muromachi Period. Princeton: Princeton University Art Museum, 1976.

Starkman, Christine, Miyeko Murase, and John M. Rosenfield. Unrivalled Splendor: The Kimiko and John Powers Collection of Japanese Art. Houston: Museum of Fine Arts, 2012.

Ten Grotenhuis, Elizabeth. Japanese Mandalas: Representations of Sacred Geography. Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press, 1999.

Ten Grotenhuis, Elizabeth. “Saikoku Pilgrimage: Japanese Devotees Search for Kannon,” in Raquin and Bangdell, Pilgrimage and Faith, 126–39.

Ten Grotenhuis, Elizabeth. “Visions of a Transcendent Realm: Pure Land Images in the Cleveland Museum of Art.” The Bulletin of the Cleveland Museum of Art 78 (November 1991): 274–300.

Washizuka Hiromitsu and Roger Goepper. Enlightenment Embodied: The Art of the Japanese Buddhist Sculptor (7th–14th Centuries). New York: Japan Society, 1997.

E. Nepal

Pal, Pratapaditya. Art of Nepal: A Catalogue of the Los Angeles County Museum of Art Collection. Los Angeles: Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 1985.

Slusser, Mary Shepherd. Art and Culture of Nepal: Selected Papers. Kathmandu: Mandala Publications, 2005.

F. Tibet

Alsop, Ian. “Phagpa Lokeśvara of the Potala.” Orientations 21 (1990): 51–61.

Bokar Rinpoche. Chenrezig, Lord of Love: Principles and Methods of Deity Meditation. Translated by Christiane Buchet. San Francisco: ClearPoint Press, 1991.

Brauen, Martin. The Mandala: Sacred Circle in Tibetan Buddhism. Translated by Martin Willson. Boston: Shambhala, 1997.

Debreczeny, Karl. The Black Hat Eccentric: Artistic Visions of the Tenth Karmpa. New York: Rubin Museum of Art, 2012.

Gyurme Dorje. Tibet Handbook. Bath: Footprint Handbooks, 2009.

Gyurme Dorje, Tashi Tsering, Heather Stoddard, and André Alexander. Jokhang: Tibet’s Most Sacred Buddhist Temple. London: Edition Hansjorg Mayer, 2010.

Jackson, David P. The Nepalese Legacy in Tibetan Painting. New York: Rubin Museum of Art, 2010.

Jackson, David P. Patron and Painter: Situ Panchen and the Revival of the Encampment Style. New York: Rubin Museum of Art, 2009.

Jackson, David P., and Janice A. Jackson. Tibetan Thangka Painting: Methods and Materials. London: Serindia Publications, 1984.

Kapstein, Matthew T. “Remarks on the Mani bKa’-‘bum and the Cult of Avalokiteśvara in Tibet.” In Tibetan Buddhism: Realism and Revelation, edited by Steven D. Goodman and Ronald M. Davidson. 79–93. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1992.

Kapstein, Matthew T. Tibetan Buddhism: A Very Short Introduction. New York: Oxford University Press, 2014.

Ladner, Lorne, ed. Wheel of Great Compassion: The Practice of the Prayer Wheel in Tibetan Buddhism. Boston: Wisdom Publications, 2000.

Lipton, Barbara, and Nima Dorjee Ragnubs. Treasures of Tibetan Art: Collections of the Jacques Marchais Museum of Tibetan Art. Staten Island, N.Y.: Jacques Marchais Museum, 1996.

Lopez, Donald S., Jr. Prisoners of Shangri-la: Tibetan Buddhism and the West. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998.

Newark Museum. Catalogue of the Tibetan Collection and Other Lamaist Articles in The Newark Museum. Vol. 2. Newark, N.J.: Newark Museum, 1950.

Pal, Pratapaditya. Tibet: Tradition and Change. Albuquerque: Albuquerque Museum, 1997.

Reynolds, Valrae, Amy Heller, and Janet Gyatso. Catalogue of The Newark Museum Tibetan Collection. Vol. 3. Newark, N.J.: Newark Museum, 1986.

Rhie, Marylin M., and Robert A. F. Thurman. Wisdom and Compassion: The Sacred Art of Tibet. San Francisco: Asian Art Museum; New York: Tibet House; New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1991.

Schroeder, Ulrich von. Buddhist Sculptures in Tibet. Vols. 1–2. Hong Kong: Visual Dharma Publications, 2001.

Tenzin Gyatso, the 14th Dalai Lama. Essence of the Heart Sutra. Translated by Geshe Thupten Jinpa. Boston: Wisdom Publications, 2002.

Thangtong Gyalpo. “Sadhana of Chenrezik: For the Benefit of All Beings as Vast as the Skies,” in Khenpo Karthar Rinpoche. Chenrezik: For the Benefit of All Beings. 1–15. Woodstock, N.Y.: KTD Publications, 2014.

G. Websites: Image, Pilgrimage, Practice

A to Z Photo Dictionary: Japanese Buddhist Statuary,

Large in-depth section on Kannon iconography.

Bagyalakshmi, “The Creation of Goddess of Mercy from Avalokitesvara,”

An elaborate investigation into the Chinese transformation and configuration of Guanyin, including the appropriation of original concepts, the assimilation into Chinese culture, and the influence of political figures.

Chenrezig (Avalokiteshvara): Embodiment of Compassion in Tibetan Buddhism,

The website gives a detailed introduction to Chenrezig. Many links to useful web resources.

Himalayan Art Resources,

Voluminous database of information on Tibetan and Nepalese art, much drawn from the Rubin Museum collection.  Many works depicting Avalokiteshvara.

Huntington Archive,

Indefatigable scholars Susan and John Huntington assembled this vast photo archive. A valuable study collection. Over 1000 photos of Avalokiteshvara.

Japanese Architecture and Art Net Users System,

Contains detailed information on the many forms of Kannon.

Kyoto National Museum, Calligraphy Stories,

Information on the Sumidera Heart Sutra.

My Saigoku Pilgrimage

Interesting blog of a Saigoku pilgrim.

Sacred Space and Japanese Art at the Spencer Museum of Art,

Online exhibition featuring images of the Saigoku Pilgrimage.

Saigoku Kannon Pilgrimage,

A very detailed introduction to the Saigoku Pilgrimage, including pictures of the temples, prayers, fire ceremony, pilgrim etiquette, and pilgrimage map.

H. Links: Scientific Research on Compassion

Brain Can Be Trained In Compassion, Study Shows.

Study from University of Wisconsin-Madison Center for Investigating Healthy Minds.

The Compassionate Instinct.

This article posits a biological and neurological basis of compassion.

Compassion Made Easy.

The article describes research into the social effects of compassion.

How to Bring Compassion into Your Interactions with Others.

Article by Zen teacher Roshi Joan Halifax.

Website of the Greater Good Science Center.

Based at University of California, Berkeley, the Greater Good Science Center states that their goal is to study “the psychology, sociology, and neuroscience of well-being,” and to teach “skills that foster a thriving, resilient, and compassionate society.” This link provides access to studies on the science of compassion.

When Mindfulness Meets Compassion.

Report on the first International Symposium on Contemplative Studies.