Diffraction is a phenomenon, which occurs when light is refracted around small object and dispersing of waves past small openings. Diffraction occurs at all waves, from sounds waves, electromagnetic, and water waves. Similar phenomena happen when light/ sound waves transverses through a medium of varying refractive index or acoustic impedance. However diffraction also occurs when propagating waves encounter various mediums. Its effects are more pronounced when the wavelength is approximately close to the dimensions of the diffracting objects. If an obstructing object has multiple spaces in close proximity, a complex pattern of varying intensity will appear. This result is linked to the superposition or interference of waves traveling at various paths.
Double slit experiment:
The double slit experiment is a simple demonstration in which matter and energy displays both characteristics of particle and waves. This experiment demonstrates rudimentary probabilistic nature of quantum mechanics. When a coherent light like a laser beam hits the thin plate, light passes through the slits and is projected on the screen behind it. The nature of light waves propagating through the slit causes destructive, and constructive interference in which bands of dark and light bands appear on the screen. In conclusion, this phenomenon is knows as the principle known as “the wave particle duality”.
Oversampling is the process when a signal of a specified frequency is significantly higher than the bandwidth of the signal being sampled. This improves resolution, reduces noise, and also avoids aliasing.